From 1732 to 1824, five Spanish monarchs spearheaded the minting of gold 8-escudo coins: Philip V (1732 – 1746), Ferdinand VI (1746 – 1759), Charles III (1760 – 1788), Charles IV (1789 – 1808), and Ferdinand VII (1808 – 1824). Most of these coins were minted in Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and mainland Spain. The obverse bears the portrait bust of the king, the year of minting, a circular inscription featuring the king’s name, and the words “D.G. HIS. ET IND. R.” (By the grace of God, King of Spain and the Indies). Encircled by the inscription “IN UTROQ FELIX AUSPICE DEO” (With happiness under the look of God), the crowned coat of arms of Castille and Leon representing the House of Bourbon appears on the reverse side, as well as the initials of the assayer, the mintmark, and the denomination. In 1857, construction of the Philippines’ first minting plant, the Casa de Moneda de Manila, commenced through a royal decree issued by Queen Isabella II. It operated on March 19, 1861, issuing gold coins of 1, 2, and 4 pesos. Isabelinas were the first ones to be minted. The obverse features the portrait of the then-reigning Spanish monarch, the year the coin was minted, and the words “ISABEL 2A. POR LA G. DE DIOS Y LA CONST” (Isabel II. For God and Constitution). These coins have the word “Filipinas” engraved on the reverse – the first time the name of the former colony was inscribed on its currency, as well as the denomination, the Spanish coat of arms, and the words “REINA DE LAS ESPAÑAS.” Until 1873, the Casa continued to mint coinage in all denominations even after the deposition of Isabella II in 1868. These coins were all dated 1868 without any deviations from those minted at the end of the queen’s reign.